Note: This biography of Frances Gulick was written by her husband, Clarence, and
made available at her funeral. - Editor
Frances Delight Anderson Gulick
Born October 6, 1919; Married December 19, 1942 (Clarence Swift Gulick, d, Sept 1996); Died May 6, 1988
Children: Sidney Luther Gulick, June 12, 1947; Michael Anderson Gulick, Oct 23, 1950
Frances was born in Nanking China where her
missionary parents were undergoing
language training. Her father, Rev. Elam J. Anderson, and mother, Dr. Colena Michael
Anderson, were of Swedish and German extraction respectively.
She lived most of her first 13 years in
where her father
was first a
professor at Shanghai University and then Principal of the Shanghai American School.
This experience contributed to her lifelong interest in and concern for China and Asia
and its people. It also left her with a wide circle of acquaintances among the children
who attended the American School during that period and their families and with a number
of her family's Chinese colleagues. Her friendship with many of the Americans and at
least one Chinese family continued throughout her life.
It was one of the considerable satisfactions of
her later years that she was
able to revisit China in 1984. On that occasion she was able to see again the house
in which she had lived as a child, the American School buildings and the church the
family had attended as well as to get together again with her closest Chinese
childhood friend - now the deputy head of Shanghai's top medical school.
The family returned to the U.S. permanently in
1932 when Dr. Anderson became
President of Linfield College in McMinnville, Oregon. Frances completed high school in
McMinnville and continued through Linfield College, graduating in 1940. In college she
was an active and successful debater; she and her colleagues accumulated an impressive
array of cups and ribbons including several from the national championships. She
continued through her later life to exerciseher oratorical skills, often being called on
for public appearances in support of one of the many good causes she espoused.
Her early interest in international relations
propelled her to the Fletcher
School of Law and Diplomacy. After one year's study she went to work in the League
of Nations secretariat office concerned with international trade, which was then in
The following year, shortly after Pearl Harbor,
she reluctantly left the League and
joined the Far East section of the OSS.* Later during the war she had a stint on
post-war planning in the State Department in addition to several other intelligence and
In 1942 she married Clarence Gulick shortly
he went on duty in the navy.
When he returned in 1946 they went back to complete their graduate studies. She
completed her course work and orals at Fletcher School in May 1947 on the eve of the
birth of their first son, Sidney. Only in 1961 was she able to finish her thesis and
receive her Ph.D.
Beyond formal education, her character was shaped by
a number of exceptional mentors.
These included particularly her mother and father, Professor Leo Gross at Fletcher School,
Dr. Folke Hilgert at theLeague of Nations, and John K. Fairbank.
While Dr. Elam Anderson died very young, in 1944, she never lost his dedication to the
good fight and confidence in the ultimate triumph of good over evil; she always felt
she could call on his guidance and support in time of doubt and difficulty. Her mother's
courage and perseverance, particularly in pulling herself together and making a new
life and career after Elam's untimely death, was a constant source of pride and
inspiration to Frances. Professor Gross was not only the one above all others to whom she
gave credit for instilling in her an insistence on rigorous analysis and
meticulous respect for authenticated facts. His insistent encouragement was also the
decisive influence in motivating final completion of her Ph.D. dissertation. Dr.
Hilgert both reinforced her global conception of the problems of human welfare and taught
her much of the realities of current international dynamics; specifically, he
convinced her that, at least in 1942, the best way to achieve global objectives was to
participate in the formation of U.S. policies. Dr. Fairbank, her Chief in the OSS
and the Dean of American Sinologists, not only taught her a lot about China and the Far
East, but became her prime model of the scholar in government, maintaining the
delicate balances between objectivity and dedication to the cause, professional
integrity and group loyalty, and scholarly thoroughness and the imperatives of real time
When Clarence completed his Ph.D. in early 1948
she strongly encouraged him to join the
Marshall Plan administration, which was just being organized. Less than a year
later he accepted an assignment in the agency's Mission in Ireland. During the two
years in Dublin she was fully engaged in housekeeping, taking care of two year old
Sidney and producing the second son, Michael. She made some efforts to generate a doctoral
dissertation on the history of the Kuomintang but was frustrated by the limited and largely
uncatalogued materials available in Dublin.
That was the last time right up to the end of
life that she was ever long
without serious professional work. She was deeply religious, and work was an integral
requirement of her religion. For her, the central obligation of religion is to work
with all one's mind, heart and strength to create the kingdom of God on earth. To do so
requires unremitting and arduous research and analysis to determine what specifically needs
to be done, ambitious but realistic assessment by each individual of what role he
can most productively play, and relentless effort in carrying out that role. She never
did less than the best she could. When she had to leave the CRS** her colleagues awarded
her a certificate citing her "Promethean efforts in developing energy policy." During
the six years since her first operation for cancer she was often severely weakened and
seldom without pain. One month after herinitial operation she was in Somalia with
a project development team. Even in her last year, when walking or even sitting was
increasingly difficult and exhausting for her, she used every ounce of strength she
could muster to finish her tasks, and in the week before she died she started work on a new project.
She gave absolute priority to her role as wife
mother. She inspired,
encouraged, supported and often guided her husband in his work and was always delighted
to assist him professionally. Whenever his career called for a move overseas or back, she
joined him promptly no matter how exciting and satisfying the jobs she had to leave.
This meant living - after returning from Ireland - eight years in Washington, two in
Pakistan, four back in Washington, two in Nigeria, five in India, again six in
Washington, three in Paris and the last seven in Washington. She always promptly found new
tasks at the new post, even though opportunities were sometimes severely limited
by local conditions and regulations. Moreover she never settled for just any job;
she always demanded tasks to which she was called by divine spirit -- ones in which her
efforts would make the greatest feasible contribution. This often took ingenuity,
perseverance and disregard of pay and rank.
Her major jobs included the following:
Member of the
Administration Research and Evaluation Staff,
Member of the
Staff of the Special Assistant to the President for
Disarmament during the mid-fifties four powernegotiations with Russia,
- Analyst in AID's*** Office of Development Research,
- Jordan Desk Officer in AID,
Analyst in the
Nutrition and Population Divisions of the AID
Mission to India,
Analyst in the
Environment and Natural Resources Policy Division
of the Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, and
the AID Africa Bureau on fuelwood, agro-forestry,
and resource management and conservation.
In every one of her assignments she made
contributions to understanding, planning and
effective execution of relevant policies and programs. In many cases her contributions
were particularly important and satisfying.
She drafted the White Paper published by the
Department reporting on the mid-
fifties disarmament negotiations. She was able later to expand and revise this as her
She played a leading role in planning and
implementing a successful program to
immunize all Jordanian children against polio.
In India she developed an analysis of the
relationships between family size and
infant mortality, showing that success in reducing family size would in itself result
in lower infant mortality. This analysis helped build support for measures to limit
numbers of children and improve their health and viability. She also took primary
responsibility for working out with Indian authorities a major program to step up
family planning programs with special supplemental AID financing.
She prepared and co-authored a number of major
reports on key energy-related
issues which were published by the CRS or congressional committees. Particularly
important and interesting were Volume 2, "New Perceptions of the Current World" (known
among initiates as "The Cosmic Reader"), and Volume 6, "Mobilizing for Social Goals", of
the House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee's major 1976 study, "Middle- and
Long-Term Energy Policies and Alternatives". She edited and wrote the introduction for the
former and collaborated in doing the same for the latter.
Finally, during the past eight years she
concentrated her efforts on promotion of
awareness of the damage flowing from fuelwood shortage - worldwide, but particularly in
Africa, the importance of increased fuelwood growth, the complementary relationship
between trees and agricultural production which prevails in many areas in Africa and
generally on the importance of tree planting and other measures to restore and conserve
Africa's endangered agricultural potential. She wrote reports on many aspects of this
problem, played a central role in organizing coordination of the activities of six major
aid donors and their integration with African national planning in the CDA**** Technical
Committee on Forestry and Fuelwood, and headed a team which developed a successful
program to support tree planting activitiesof private voluntary aid organizations in Somalia.
The last task she completed less than two
before the end typifies in some
ways her dedication. It was to develop a coherent, integrated system for filing and
data management for the Agriculture and Rural Development Staff of AID'S Africa Bureau, the
staff responsible for backstopping the Agency's activities in Africa on agriculture,
forestry and natural resource management and conservation. This was anything but an
exciting or dramatic task; it was tedious and destined to be largely thankless.
Nevertheless she recognized its importance to the efficient functioning of the office and
that if it was to have any hope of actually working it would require thorough knowledge
of the problems being dealt with and relevant data flows and careful consideration of
relationships with the responsibilities ofeach individual staff member and with other
Agency data systems and centers. She therefore threw herself into the task and
pursued it doggedly to successful completion despite the drain on her ebbing physical
strength and the occasional difficulty of generating attention and enthusiasm among the
busy staff members whose cooperation was essential.
Though she never lost sight of the big picture
the forest if you will - she was
always ready to do what she could to help with individual needs. Whether relatively
large or small, these received her seriousattention and practical constructive help.
Over the years she helped numerous new and inexperienced workers to learn the ropes and
improve their technical and bureaucratic effectiveness. Several times she assisted
promising young people to gain admission to and finance professional or technical
education. Often she provided direct help to deserving cases including one unemployed,
near-alcoholic ex-convict with a large and growing family and no proper housing. She
was able to help him find a job he could handle, apply for it and get it, and she
coached him on applying successfully to the appropriate authorities for adequate housing.
From the time she arrived in Washington in 1941
she was a faithful member of the
First Baptist Church of Washington. In early years she sang in the choir and continued
active in the Dawson Sunday School Class. When away from Washington she invariably
established a relationship with local churches. She continued her Bible studies
through formal classes and helped organize a number of informal study groups. She was
often called upon to teach Bible classes or participate in religious services and church
meetings. While devoted to Christian doctrine and ritual, she was no narrow
sectarian. She believed the divine spirit can be reached through many channels and was
always interested in learning about the approaches and insights of other denominations and religions.
She was a particularly loyal alumna of Linfield
College. She kept in
close contact with its progress
and supported it faithfully. She was surprised and delighted when she was cited at a recent commencement
ceremony as its alumna of the year.
- Clarence Gulick, 1988
*OSS - Office of Strategic Services. It was established in 1942 by President Roosevelt to collect intelligence needed for the war effort. After the war it went through several changes, becoming, in 1947, the Central Intelligence Agency.
**CRS - Congressional Research Service. This agency works for the United States Congress, providing policy and legal analysis to committees and Members of both the House and Senate, regardless of party affiliation.
***AID - Agency for International Development. This is the agency through which most foreign aid passes. It helps Congress establish priorities and sees to the distribution of non-military foreign aid.
****CDA - probably means Community Development
Agency. Your editor is uncertain